# 2011-07-27 - Multiple instances of ImageJ in the same JVM

With ImageJ1, there is a singleton instance of the program, accessible via IJ.getInstance(). With ImageJ2 we want to provide a mechanism for managing multiple ImageJ “application contexts.” At the moment, ImageJ2 is also still a singleton, but we recently did some work to pave the way for multiple ImageJ applications running simultaneously.

In ImageJ2, functionality is divided into a set of services, which are classes implementing the IService interface. Each service class has a single instance associated with its ImageJ application context. So once you have an ImageJ object, you can ask it for a service of a particular class by calling the getService(Class<? extends IService>) method. With multiple application contexts, the tricky part can be accessing the correct ImageJ object in the first place.

One option is for the API to require passing around an ImageJ object in many places. For example, writing a plugin currently requires implementing a single method, run(). Most plugins require access to one or more services of the application context (e.g., a plugin might wish to ask the DisplayService about the currently active Display). We could change this signature to run(ImageJ), but then it would become incompatible with the Runnable interface. Alternately, we could add another method setContext(ImageJ) that informs the plugin of the context, or require a constructor that takes an ImageJ argument, but both of these would make writing a plugin more complicated. A third option could be to declare the required services as fields annotated with @Parameter, to be populated during preprocessing.

For now, we have chosen to provide access to the current application context from a static method, ImageJ.getContext(). This method examines the name of the current thread and extracts the context ID if available. For example, a thread called "ImageJ-1-ModuleRunner" is spawned when the ImageJ with an ID of 1 executes a plugin. The getContext() method can then determine the application context merely from the thread name. However, this approach cannot glean the application context from standard threads such as the AWT event dispatch thread. Hence, when creating a new application context, we use a special initialization thread named "ImageJ-0-Initialization" (where “0” is the ID of the context being created), and block the calling thread until it is complete.

To create a new application context, call the static ImageJ.createContext() method, which instantiates an ImageJ object with all available services (i.e., those classes which implement IService and are annotated with @Service, discovered in the classpath at runtime by SezPoz). Alternately, calling ImageJ.createContext(createContext(Class<? extends IService>...) or ImageJ.createContext(Collection<Class<? extends IService>>) will create an application with only those services given (and any dependencies). Either way, the context is guaranteed to have a unique ID, which will be the next available incrementing value, starting at 0.

To initialize services, ImageJ examines the given list of service classes in order, recursively scanning for dependencies, as declared in the constructor of each service. For example, the PluginService requires a ModuleService to function, so it declares a constructor PluginService(ImageJ, ModuleService) which ImageJ takes care of populating with the proper values. (As a side note: every service also declares a no-args constructor, but only because SezPoz requires it; it is never used, and will throw UnsupportedOperationException if it is called.) The constructor used is always the first one found with an ImageJ for its first argument. Any additional arguments are considered dependencies, and expected to be IService implementations. This paradigm allows for easier dependency injection, which e.g. is useful for unit testing the service classes. When initializing, ImageJ uses a two-pass approach to its services: on the first pass, it recursively constructs the instances, and on the second pass it calls IService.initialize() on each new instance in the same order. This ensures that all service classes exist before any are initialized, and allows limited support for circular dependencies. Finally, additional services can be loaded into an ImageJ application context after initialization using the loadService(Class<? extends IService>) and loadServices(Collection<Class<? extends IService>>) methods.

There are a few problem areas remaining before ImageJ will fully support multiple simultaneous application contexts. Specifically, there are some static methods that must be fixed or eliminated:

• ImageJ.get(Class<? extends IService>): This method is a shortcut for ImageJ.getContext().getService(Class<? extends IService>) and is the main mechanism that plugins and other external code uses to obtain access to application services. Fortunately, making getContext() work reliably also fixes this method. But ideally we should reduce or possibly even eliminate uses of this method in favor of other approaches.
• Events.publish and Events.subscribe: As part of the refactoring toward multiple application contexts, we moved away from a single static event bus, and now have an EventService with its own event bus. So events are now published locally within a particular context only. We also added a getContext() method to ImageJEvent so that all event handlers have easy access to the application context of the event. Unfortunately, there are over a hundred references to the static Events class throughout the codebase. Thus, we have updated Events.publish(ImageJEvent) to be a shortcut for ImageJ.get(EventService.class).publish(ImageJEvent). In the future, we may eliminate the Events class, or at least thoroughly scrutinize everywhere it is used.

In particular, calling either of the above static methods from the EDT or other generic thread will fail, so the architecture must be structured to work properly without ever doing so. Unfortunately, there are currently many places where these methods (particularly the Events methods) are called in such a way. So for now, we have hardcoded ImageJ.getContext() to return ImageJ.getContext(0) by default, which effectively keeps ImageJ restricted to a singleton application. We will revisit this issue in the future, but for the time being there are more pressing matters (#632, #694, #660, and many more).